Patient Education

Overview

Patient Education articles are documents compiled by our medical experts. They provide information about a condition, such as its causes, how it is normally diagnosed, the common care methods related to it, and more. Educational information may be presented to patients after they finish a /diagnosis loop to give them more detailed, accessible information about the conditions in the ranking.

Each article consists of a title and a list of thematic sections. Each section has a title, a name (which functions as a section identifier), and content. Possible sections are:

  • name: summary
    A short summary of the information contained in the document.
  • name: how_its_defined
    Condition definition.
  • name: how_its_caused
    Usual causes of the condition.
  • name: how_its_diagnosed
    The usual diagnostic process for this condition.
  • name: how_it_can_be_treated_at_home
    Methods that may treat or alleviate some of the condition’s symptoms.
  • name: how_its_prevented
    Measures that are usually undertaken to prevent this condition.
  • name: when_to_see_professional
    When to see a healthcare professional if concerned about this condition.
  • name: disclaimer
    A disclaimer about the article’s content.
  • name: sources
    Sources used to compile the information, such as medical articles and literature.

A specific article may have all the possible sections or just a subset of them. Additional sections may be added in the future. When requesting a Patient Education article, all of the sections are returned by default, but a parameter containing the desired sections may be provided to return only some of them.

The articles are currently returned in a simple Rich Text JSON Format. This should allow for maximum rendering flexibility. Other representations, such as HTML, may be supported in the future.

Please note that the Patient Education feature is available in the English language version, for an additional cost. For details, please contact the Infermedica team.

Request

Patient Education articles may be available for some of the conditions returned in the condition ranking from /diagnosis. To get information about articles' availability, the include_condition_details flag must be set in the diagnosis request. Then, if a condition has an available article, the appropriate condition_details object will contain a has_patient_education field set to true. The response will also contain an interview_token field, a value needed in the subsequent request.

Here is an example of a relevant part of a /diagnosis response for a condition for which a patient education document is available:

{
  ...,
  "conditions": [
    {
          "id": "c_1039",
          "name": "Arm contusion",
          "common_name": "Arm contusion",
          "probability": 0.1654,
         "condition_details": {
              "has_patient_education": true,
              ...
          }
    },
    ...
  ],
  "interview_token": "XXX.XXXXXX.XXXX"
}

For such a condition, you can request a Patient Education article by a GET request to the /patient_education/{condition_id} with appropriate parameters:

  • Interview-Token: A required header, which must contain the value of interview_token returned in diagnosis.
  • Accept: A required header, for which currently allowed values are application/JSON and */*, which both result in a JSON return format. In the future, more representations may be supported.
  • Sections: An optional query parameter, which filters the returned article sections. When present, this parameter should contain the names of all the sections that you wish to receive.
  • Example curl request:

    curl "https://api.infermedica.com/v3/patient_education/c_131?sections=summary,disclaimer,sources" \
      -X "GET" \
      -H "Accept: application/json" \
      -H "Interview-Token: XXX.XXXXXX.XXXX" \
      -H "App-Id: XXXXXXXX" -H "App-Key: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"

    Response

    The JSON response body contains the document title and a list of sections. Each section contains a title, a name (section identifier), and contents.

    The contents and titles are represented in a simple Rich Text Format. Its structure is a tree of semantic objects of various types, such as a paragraph, list, or text, conceptually similar to document representation of formats like HTML.

    Each node is a JSON object with a type, a list of child nodes, and for some node types, additional attributes. Possible node types are:

    • Paragraph
      • Node type: paragraph
      • Additional attributes: none
      • Notes: none
      • JSON node example:
    {
      "node_type": "paragaph",
      "content": [...]
    }
    • Header
      • Node type: heading-1, heading-2, or heading-3
      • Additional attributes: none
      • Notes: Heading number represents priority— heading-1 is considered more important or general than heading-2 and should be rendered accordingly as bigger or with more emphasis.
      • JSON node example:
    {
      "node_type": "heading-1",
      "content": [...]
    }
    • Link
      • Node type: link
      • Additional attributes: target URL pointing to the link destination
      • Notes: none
      • JSON node example:
    {
      "node_type": "link",
      "target": "https://infermedica.com",
      "content": [...]
    }
    • Text
      • Node type: text
      • Additional attributes: value text content
      • Notes: This is the only node type that cannot contain nested content.
      • JSON node example:
    {
      "node_type": "text",
      "value": "The bruised arm can be painful but usually heals by itself."
    }
    • Unordered list
      • Node type: unordered-list
      • Additional attributes: none
      • Notes: Unordered list will only contain nodes of type list-item as its direct children (content array elements).
      • JSON node example:
    {
      "node_type": "unordered-list",
      "content": [...]
    }
    • Ordered list
      • Node type: ordered-list
      • Additional attributes: none
      • Notes: Ordered list will only contain nodes of type list-item as its direct children (content array elements).
      • JSON node example:
    {
      "node_type": "ordered-list",
      "content": [...]
    }
    • List item
      • Node type: list-item
      • Additional attributes: none
      • JSON node example:
    {
      "node_type": "list-item",
      "content": [...]
    }

    Example of a whole response document:

    {
      "title": {
        "node_type": "heading-1",
        "content": [
          {
            "node_type": "text",
            "value": "Chest pain, unspecified"
          }
        ]
      },
      "sections": [
        {
          "name": "summary",
          "title": {
            "node_type": "heading-2",
            "content": [
              {
                "node_type": "text",
                "value": "Summary"
              }
            ]
          },
          "content": [
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "Chest pain is a feeling of discomfort or pain anywhere on the front of the body between neck and upper abdomen or top of the belly. The pain may be in just one place, scattered, or spreading. It can feel very different depending on the cause and the person."
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "There are a lot of diseases that affect different organs (digestive, muscles and bones, heart and blood vessels, breathing) that have chest pain as a symptom and many of them are life-threatening."
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "Healthcare providers should use all the tools they have to diagnose chest pain. People with chest pain shouldn’t try to diagnose themselves and should see a healthcare professional when the pain’s sudden or gets worse."
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "name": "how_its_defined",
          "title": {
            "node_type": "heading-2",
            "content": [
              {
                "node_type": "text",
                "value": "How it’s defined"
              }
            ]
          },
          "content": [
            {
              "node_type": "heading-3",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "What is chest pain?"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "Chest pain is a feeling of discomfort or pain anywhere on the front of the body between neck and upper abdomen or top of the belly. It's common and can be caused by many things that aren't heart attacks."
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "In most cases, chest pain isn’t caused by a heart problem."
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "Common words used to describe chest pain are:"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "unordered-list",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Dull"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Deep"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Pressing"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Squeezing"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Sharp"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Stabbing"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Poking"
                    }
                  ]
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "In some cases, the pain’s just in one spot, but in other cases, the pain’s felt over a bigger area. Chest pain may also radiate or spread to other nearby places like the left or right shoulder, jaw, or left arm. It may also spread to the chest from the neck, abdomen or belly, and back."
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "While most of the time chest pain isn’t a sign of anything serious, it can be a symptom of many life-threatening conditions. People with chest pain should get help from a healthcare provider to make sure they don’t have a serious medical problem."
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "name": "how_its_caused",
          "title": {
            "node_type": "heading-2",
            "content": [
              {
                "node_type": "text",
                "value": "How it’s caused"
              }
            ]
          },
          "content": [
            {
              "node_type": "heading-3",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "What causes chest pain?"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "Chest pain has many possible causes and since many of them are life-threatening, people with chest pain need to see a healthcare provider."
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "Some causes include:"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "unordered-list",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Digestive problems like "
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "link",
                      "target": "https://www.google.com/url?q=https://medlineplus.gov/heartburn.html&sa=D&source=editors&ust=1650977795211632&usg=AOvVaw3KRmg2IiBsQLyKCLATkVAF",
                      "content": [
                        {
                          "node_type": "text",
                          "value": "heartburn"
                        }
                      ]
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "; swallowing problems; and pancreatic and gallbladder problems"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Muscle and bone problems like injured ribs; sore muscles; or costochondritis, inflamed chest joints"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "link",
                      "target": "https://www.google.com/url?q=https://medlineplus.gov/panicdisorder.html&sa=D&source=editors&ust=1650977795212098&usg=AOvVaw1W_bEU2CFOz2KyTjKWQDba",
                      "content": [
                        {
                          "node_type": "text",
                          "value": "Panic attacks"
                        }
                      ]
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Heart-related causes like a heart attack; "
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "link",
                      "target": "https://www.google.com/url?q=https://medlineplus.gov/angina.html&sa=D&source=editors&ust=1650977795212312&usg=AOvVaw3g3pWfQRYjzGZfuS5UVNbI",
                      "content": [
                        {
                          "node_type": "text",
                          "value": "angina"
                        }
                      ]
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "; pericarditis or inflammation of the sack around heart muscle; or aortic dissection, a tear in the aorta"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Lung diseases like "
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "link",
                      "target": "https://www.google.com/url?q=https://medlineplus.gov/pneumonia.html&sa=D&source=editors&ust=1650977795212575&usg=AOvVaw1MPFjXe02gmYx__KgBxN8i",
                      "content": [
                        {
                          "node_type": "text",
                          "value": "pneumonia"
                        }
                      ]
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": ", "
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "link",
                      "target": "https://www.google.com/url?q=https://medlineplus.gov/pleuraldisorders.html&sa=D&source=editors&ust=1650977795212745&usg=AOvVaw06lHZOvMMN0lUOCtP4oB6Y",
                      "content": [
                        {
                          "node_type": "text",
                          "value": "pleurisy"
                        }
                      ]
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": ", "
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "link",
                      "target": "https://www.google.com/url?q=https://medlineplus.gov/pulmonaryembolism.html&sa=D&source=editors&ust=1650977795212922&usg=AOvVaw3rTOiJmVCNcKfGlkiz_DFQ",
                      "content": [
                        {
                          "node_type": "text",
                          "value": "pulmonary embolism"
                        }
                      ]
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": ", pulmonary hypertension, or a collapsed lung"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Shingles pain and blisters that go from the back around to the chest caused by the chickenpox virus"
                    }
                  ]
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "name": "how_its_diagnosed",
          "title": {
            "node_type": "heading-2",
            "content": [
              {
                "node_type": "text",
                "value": "How it’s diagnosed"
              }
            ]
          },
          "content": [
            {
              "node_type": "heading-3",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "How is chest pain diagnosed?"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "Healthcare providers start to diagnose chest pain by taking a person’s medical history and doing a physical exam. Depending the person’s history and exam, tests like these may be ordered:"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "unordered-list",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "An electrocardiogram or EKG"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Blood lab tests like a basic metabolic panel, troponin level, complete blood count, and lipase level"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Imaging tests like a chest X-ray, an ultrasound, chest computerized tomography (CT) scan, or a CT pulmonary angiography"
                    }
                  ]
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "name": "how_it_can_be_treated_at_home",
          "title": {
            "node_type": "heading-2",
            "content": [
              {
                "node_type": "text",
                "value": "How it can be treated at home"
              }
            ]
          },
          "content": [
            {
              "node_type": "heading-3",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "How can people treat chest pain?"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "People with chest pain are recommended not to treat it but to see a healthcare provider, especially if:"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "unordered-list",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "The pain’s new"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "They don’t know what’s causing the pain"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "The pain doesn’t go away in a few minutes"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "The pain keeps coming back"
                    }
                  ]
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "heading-3",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "Medication"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "heading-3",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "What medicines can treat chest pain?"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "There are many groups of drugs that can treat chest pain, but how well they work depends on the cause of the pain. People with chest pain should get a medical diagnosis and any medicine they need for chest pain from a healthcare provider."
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "name": "how_its_prevented",
          "title": {
            "node_type": "heading-2",
            "content": [
              {
                "node_type": "text",
                "value": "How it’s prevented"
              }
            ]
          },
          "content": [
            {
              "node_type": "heading-3",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "How can chest pain be prevented?"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "People can prevent chest pain by:"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "unordered-list",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Being aware of their own or their family history of heart disease"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Acting early and following their healthcare provider’s advice if they’re been diagnosed with heart disease"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Not smoking, using cocaine, or drinking too much alcohol"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Keeping a healthy weight"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Eating a healthy diet"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Regularly checking and keeping normal cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose levels"
                    }
                  ]
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "name": "when_to_see_professional",
          "title": {
            "node_type": "heading-2",
            "content": [
              {
                "node_type": "text",
                "value": "When it’s time for professional care"
              }
            ]
          },
          "content": [
            {
              "node_type": "heading-3",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "When should people get help from a healthcare provider for chest pain?"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "People should get care right away if they have sudden chest pain that:"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "unordered-list",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Clearly spreads to the arms, back, neck, or jaw"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Is crushing, or makes the chest feel the chest tight, heavy, or pressing"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Happens with nausea, sweating, dizziness, or shortness of breath"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Doesn’t go away within 15 minutes"
                    }
                  ]
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "People should get help from a healthcare provider if they have any pain that:"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "unordered-list",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Gets worse"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Comes with upper respiratory tract infection symptoms"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Makes them worry they’re having a heart attack."
                    }
                  ]
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "name": "disclaimer",
          "title": {
            "node_type": "heading-2",
            "content": [
              {
                "node_type": "text",
                "value": "Disclaimer"
              }
            ]
          },
          "content": [
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "“Please note none of this information:"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "unordered-list",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Can be used instead of a professional medical diagnosis, care, or advice"
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Replaces professional medical care and is only for your information."
                    }
                  ]
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "node_type": "paragraph",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "text",
                  "value": "Please contact a healthcare provider if you have questions or concerns about your health.”"
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "name": "sources",
          "title": {
            "node_type": "heading-2",
            "content": [
              {
                "node_type": "text",
                "value": "Sources"
              }
            ]
          },
          "content": [
            {
              "node_type": "ordered-list",
              "content": [
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "MedlinePlus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). Chest pain; [updated 2021 July 30; reviewed 2017 September 05; cited 2022 Jan 09]; [about 1p.]. Available from: "
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "link",
                      "target": "https://medlineplus.gov/chestpain.html",
                      "content": [
                        {
                          "node_type": "text",
                          "value": "https://medlineplus.gov/chestpain.html"
                        }
                      ]
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "Johnson K, Ghassemzadeh S. Chest Pain. [Updated 2021 Aug 1]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: "
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "link",
                      "target": "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470557/",
                      "content": [
                        {
                          "node_type": "text",
                          "value": "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470557/"
                        }
                      ]
                    }
                  ]
                },
                {
                  "node_type": "list-item",
                  "content": [
                    {
                      "node_type": "text",
                      "value": "NHS [Internet] The National Health Service (UK); Chest pain; [​​Page last reviewed: 2020 Aug 14; cited 2022 Jan 09] Available from: "
                    },
                    {
                      "node_type": "link",
                      "target": "https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/chest-pain/",
                      "content": [
                        {
                          "node_type": "text",
                          "value": "https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/chest-pain/"
                        }
                      ]
                    }
                  ]
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    }